HISTORY OF THE APPEARANCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAPACITY ART
Stained glass is one of the most remarkable phenomena of monumental art. It received its current name from the French word “vitrage” – glass. Until recently, this term was understood as an ornamental or plot decorative composition (in a window, door, partition, in the form of a separate panel) of glass or other material that transmits light.
According to scientists, the simplest stained glass windows existed already in ancient Egypt from the 2nd millennium BC. and in ancient Rome – from the 1st millennium AD. The interest of people in the light-colored effect and the bright symbolism of glasses already at the earliest stages led to the inclusion of the stained-glass window not only in the everyday life of material culture. Going beyond its limits, he soon became a landmark carrier of certain spiritual values.
Sensing this great magic of colored glass, the spiritual fathers introduced stained glass windows into the life of church life, as an element of the interior design of cathedrals. According to them, the stained-glass window is designed to protect a person from temptation, the multi-colored window has a dual purpose: on the one hand, it is the “entrance” to the unearthly realm of Truth, Light and Spirit. On the other hand, there is a barrier, which protects a person from the Divine blinding radiance, and does not allow to break the distance between the earthly and the heavenly.
Unlike Western Europe, stained glass art in Russia has a relatively short history. Scientists associate it with the first quarter of the 19th century, when in 1820 domestic manufacturers undertook the first experiments in such a delicate glass-making area. Already by 1900-1910. stained glass art in Russia, as the authors of serious studies unanimously argue, has reached its peak. However, the revolution of 1917 interrupted the development of Russian stained glass, whose history totaled only about a hundred years by that time.
Since its appearance in Russia, stained glass windows have immediately become a very common decoration in the interiors of wealthy Russian noble houses. “The fashion for colorful windows, the researchers note, came to Russia from Western Europe, along with a set of romantic ideas and ideas.”
For a short period from 1820 to 1910. the stained glass technique has evolved markedly, iconography has also changed, the stained glass in the living space. The changes affected the terminology. If in the era of romanticism, polychrome decorative glazing was called in Russia “transparent (transparent) painting”, then at the end of the 19th century. – “patterned glass”, and from the 1900s. – the same as now – the term “stained glass”. A fair question arises: if Ancient Russia, having accepted Christianity from Byzantium, followed the established canon in the structure of the church and the environment of worship, then why, in contrast to the same Byzantium, where it was already before the XII century. stained glass used in the decoration of some churches, Russia so late?
As some researchers note, some experiments of decorative polychrome glazing in our country were more likely to be episodic, not finding continuation in the practice of ancient Russian construction. Here they were not used for a number of reasons: due to the climatic conditions, the spatial organization of the temple, etc., other than in medieval Europe, etc. In addition, the original Orthodox tradition forbade writing icons on glass because of the fragility and fragility of the material itself, and hence the image depicted on it, in which, according to Christian concepts, the person depicted on the icon mysteriously appears.
In secular buildings, the use of stained glass windows depended entirely on the import of colored glass, which was then fabulously expensive and rare. Even in wealthy homes, the windows were closed with a fish bubble, oiled paper and mica. Sources indicate the existence of painted mica “okonchin” with the image of people, animals and birds in geometric patterns. They can be considered, according to scientists, analogues of the picturesque West-European turns.
In the 17th century, even with the emergence and development of the first Russian glass factories, the color glazing of houses remained the lot of the elect. Complete stacked glass windows were used in the homes of princes Vasily and Alexei Golitsyn, in the chambers of the boyar Kirill Naryshkin and some other famous people. Also in the XVII century. painted glass was found in the windows of the houses of the Russian nobility: for example, in the Kolomna Palace and the “Krestovaya tent” of Patriarch Filaret.
Let us imagine for a moment the decoration of these choirs: painted walls and ceilings, shiny stoves with tiles, patterned carpets and carved shutters … In the interiors of rich chambers only windows could remain colorless stains. The stained-glass windows helped to solve the problem – multicolored glass and mica plates assembled in a pattern that complemented the luxurious life of the then aristocracy. “The colored light that has now penetrated through glass and mica stained glass windows created a special, joyful mood, made the interior cozy, complemented the beauty of the brightly-patterned decoration of the room.”