HISTORY OF THE APPEARANCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF HOMELESS ART
“The tapestry is a beauty, slowly created by warm skillful hands, a calm mind and a sensitive soul.”
Today, a variety of arts and crafts, traditionally called “tapestry”, acts as a complex artistic phenomenon that combines the qualities of several genres at once – from “hand weaving” to “textile” sculpture.
Initially, the concept of tapestry was a method of producing fabric that looked like a wall lint-free carpet with a plot or ornamental composition. This carpet was woven by hand, from colored or silk threads through their weave.
In itself, the word “tapestry” (fr.gobelin) originated in the 17th century. in France and is nothing more than the use of the name of the brothers Gobelins in the designation of the name of wall carpets. The story says that in 1601 the Flemish Francois de la Planche bought a dye for the family of tapestries near Paris. And 60 years later, this small textile production workshop, thanks to the high level of “textile cloths” that emerged from its walls, was reorganized into the Royal Gobelins Brothers Manufactory, and then into the Royal Furniture Manufacture. Headed this production president of the Academy of Painting, “the first painter of the king,” Charles Lebrun. He himself created sketches for many tapestries of his manufactory, thereby forming a certain style, color and means of artistic expression of “woven paintings”, which we now call the classics of the genre.
Despite the significant costs required for the maintenance of workshops and the absence of large revenues from tapestry production, the Royal Tapestry Manufactory continued to exist with all the French governments that had been replaced since then. And the most interesting thing that continues to exist up to the present, as an artistic institution, which is the pride of this country.
It should be noted here that the original tapestries, woven, lint-free carpets, were called trellis. The art of the trellis is known to be one of the most ancient on earth. The name of the classic Western European tapestry (Italian spalliera) is derived from the Italian designation of the grid for fresh flowers and in this case defines the concept of an old smooth plot carpet, which was created using one of the simplest weaving techniques – a cross or plain weave. As you know, in the Middle Ages in the south of Europe, the walls of rich interiors were decorated mainly with fresco painting, and in more northern areas this painting began to replace the tapestry, borrowing from it both plots and some techniques of color stretch. At the same time, in the cold stone buildings, the trellis was assigned not only aesthetic, but also utilitarian role: they retained heat.
The earliest tapestries are German medieval designs, and the heyday of tapestry weaving occurred in France. But wherever the trellis was created, their production has always been a very expensive and painstaking process. Therefore, only members of royal families and the wealthiest nobles could afford to allow them to purchase wonderful “woven paintings”, who often created special trellis workshops with their castles. The author was always a painter, his duties included the creation of a detailed sketch of the cardboard of the future woven work. Then the specialist cartoner enlarged this sketch and carefully carried it out on the scale of the work. And, finally, a master weaver translated the resulting cardboard into a textile material, using silk, wool, and sometimes silver and gold threads. Most often, these “textile canvases” were ordered in series, in which sometimes there were up to 12 or more carpets united by a single theme or storyline.
Tapestries were always very expensive. A very interesting fact from the history of carpet weaving is known, when a French prince was bought from a Turkish captivity for a series of tapestries. Since then, the espalier art has become fashionable, and many great artists, such as Raphael, Rubens, Van Dyke, Boucher and others, have shown interest in creating sketches.
The history of tapestry art went through a series of stages, from fall to rise, decline and prosperity, changing countries, names, and acquiring new techniques and artistic possibilities. Now, having become a tapestry, this art is subject to the laws of not only weaving and painting, but also plastics. And the tapestry itself has turned from a smooth plot carpet into an innovative experiment representing the fusion of texture, relief and various content materials that are woven into the fabric along with traditional weaving materials, and this certainly helps the tapestry to conquer new and stable positions in modern art.