EXCURSION TO THE WORLD OF PAINTING
Putting paints on canvas or any other surface, the painter turns them into color, creating an idea about the material qualities (texture) of the object being depicted, its color, etc. Due to the fact that the phenomenon of life is not monochromatic and not one-color, painting It depicts not only the color of each individual object, but also the complex combination that forms objects that have different colors when they are arranged in a certain form and are given in combination. The combination of colors, color harmony and form a coloring in painting.
Coloring is so important that other artists even claim that all painting is based primarily on one color. They believe that the impressions that the artist receives from life in the picture turn into “purely coloristic values”. Of course, there is no painting without color. By means of color, the artist expresses the content of the picture, causes a certain mood in its perception. And it often happens that the viewer does not have time to grasp the plot, and the color immediately creates a certain psychological attitude to the picture, causes corresponding feelings – joyful, anxious, watchful, etc. Thanks to the color, painting evokes a certain mood in the viewer, empathy understanding the thoughts and feelings of the people that are depicted in the picture.
But coloring is not an end in itself in art, but a means. The color range, the pictorial qualities of the painting acquire a greater or lesser value in direct proportion to the extent to which they help the disclosure of the ideological and aesthetic concept.
Such is, for example, the brilliant picture of V. Surikov “The Morning of the Strelets Execution”. The rich color scheme of the picture – its dark, thick color, purple fog, white shirts of the archers, flickering lights against them – all this is not “a riot of colors”, but amazing skill that brightest conveys one of the dramatic moments of Russian history.
A painting is not created by one color. The frame of the picture is drawing. The picture conveys the shape of the object, its outlines. You can not detract from the value of the picture by exaggerating the value of color. The theorists of anti-realist trends in painting, in particular, adherents of abstract art, not only detract, but simply ignore the meaning of the drawing. Some of them argue that the color in painting can play the same role as sound in music: the matter allegedly lies not in the realistic depiction of objects of the world around us, but in causing only the color of the corresponding associations in the viewer.
Depicting reality on a two-dimensional plane, painting creates the illusion of three-dimensionality and three-dimensionality: people and objects seem to be located at different distances from the viewer – some are closer, others are farther away, and nature is depicted as a current that the sky seems to extend to the very horizon. For example, in the relatively small picture of I. Levitan “Vladimirka” the road is perceived as infinity.
The impression of depth is achieved by using the law of perspective. Linear perspective gives the opportunity to build the apparent outlines of objects, and the air – a change in color and outlines. Due to light and shade, an illusion of volume and bulge is created. Chiaroscuro is formed by a thin and precise combination of the illuminated and unlit sides of the objects depicted in the picture. Leonardo da Vinci wrote: “If you, the poet, are able to tell and describe the phenomena of forms, then the painter will make it so that they seem lively thanks to chiaroscuro.” The black and white principle, according to Leonardo, is determined by the fact that “the shadows of bodies should not be implicated in any other color except the color of the body on which they lie.”
But, of course, the pictorial truth of painting does not boil down to achieving the most accurate, comprehensive and detailed similarity of an image with reality. A genuinely realistic artistic image is always more or less conditional, and this not only does not detract, but increases the persuasiveness of the image. The conventionality of painting increases in monochrome graphics, linear pattern.
In order for static paintings to move apart the picture, the artist portrays the phenomena of life that interest him from such an angle that allows him to detect important and essential aspects of the character of the people depicted, searches for a sharp plot, creates a deeply meaningful composition.
Painting is divided into monumental and easel. Monumental painting is associated with architecture – it is the painting of facades of buildings, walls, ceilings, etc. These are, as a rule, large in size works related to the appointment of architectural structures. The easel consists of those works that have independent significance, regardless of where they will be exhibited – museums, houses of culture or private apartments. Easel painting is not connected with architecture.