EXCURSION TO THE WORLD OF BATIK
There are several types of batik – hot, cold, free painting. They differ in the way the fabric is backed up. As a reserve in hot batik wax is used. The wax is applied using a special tool called chanting. The places covered with wax do not absorb paint, and also limit its distribution. Hot batik is called hot because the wax is used in “hot” molten form. This method is mainly used for applying color images on cotton fabric.
Upon completion, the wax is removed from the surface of the fabric. The effect of painting is achieved through layer-by-layer fabric coating.
Cold batik is used to a greater extent when creating a pattern on silk, although it is possible to use other fabrics here. In this case, the role of the reserve composition is performed by a special material. It can be prepared at home, but there are ready-made reserves. They represent a thick mass of rubber origin. There are both color and colorless reserves. Cold reserve is applied either by special tools – glass tubes with a reservoir, or special contours are used in tubes that are equipped with an elongated spout.
The technique of free painting has gained considerable spread, as it reveals the originality of the handwriting of each artist and the individual uniqueness of the works, which is characteristic of manual labor. Free painting on fabrics from natural silk and synthetic fibers is made mainly by aniline dyes (sometimes with various thickeners), as well as oil paints with special solvents. Particularly interesting results are obtained from the combination of free painting with contour strokes and trimming with a backup composition.
Free painting using saline
The essence of this method is as follows: depending on the nature of the pattern, the fabric stretched on the frame is either impregnated with an aqueous solution of table salt and, after drying, painted or painted with colors from basic dyes in which table salt solution is introduced. All this limits the spreadability of paint on the fabric, makes it possible to carry out drawings with free strokes, varying the shape and degree of color saturation.
Free painting with the introduction of saline in them can be combined with the usual painting with cold batik. To do this, some parts of the picture are made with free painting with a revision of the graphic pattern, and background overlaps are made in areas limited by the reserving composition.
Batik is a generic name for various methods of hand-painted fabric. The basis of all these techniques is the principle of redundancy, that is, the covering of the paint-free composition of those parts of the fabric that should remain unpainted and form a pattern. From time immemorial, this method was used in ancient Sumer, Peru, Japan, Sri Lanka, Indochina, and in African countries. The homeland of batik is considered the island of Java in Indonesia, where to this day clothing made from hand-painted fabrics is very popular.
Modern techniques of painting fabrics are very diverse. Batik has incorporated the features and artistic techniques of many visual arts – watercolors, pastels, graphics, stained glass, mosaics. A significant simplification of the painting techniques in comparison with traditional techniques and the variety of special tools allows you to paint various details of clothing, interior items, paintings on silk, even to those who have never before engaged in decorating fabrics.
Hot batik is a fascinating, but also very time-consuming exercise. It is in this technique of artistic painting of fabric that you have the full opportunity to make a variety of textures that give an absolutely unexpected result. Therefore, it is advisable to think over the graphic, tonal and color solution in the sketch before you begin work. All possible shortcomings are better corrected on paper than on silk, where it is much more difficult to do.
Apparatus for making hot wax, without the use of which it is impossible to imagine this technique, is quite simple to do at home.
I offer you two options.
one). It is necessary to take a can into which a cartridge with a light bulb will be placed, and make small holes in it, thereby protecting the can from overheating. On it you put a jar of larger diameter, which will be wax.
2). For this option, you will also need two cans with different diameters. In the one that is bigger, pour water and lower the boiler into it, and put the second jar with wax in the first one, note that it should be higher than the first one.
Round and flat brushes of different sizes, made of various materials: column, bristles or synthetics, are used for painting. As a hot wax, it is better to use paraffin candles, only they should be white, without flavors and fillers.Hot wax can be applied with different tools: brushes of various sizes, rollers and stamps. You can also make “droplets” with the help of a lit candle. Before applying a layer of wax, make sure that the fabric dries out, as the wax is not applied to the wet surface. A very characteristic effect for hot batik is the crackle technique. To do this, wax those areas where the craquelure will be located. Then remove the fabric from the subframe and “break” the wax in sharp movements. After that, stretch the material on the subframe again and paint the cracks formed with a darker or more contrasting color. Crackle is usually the final stage. It remains only to remove the wax from the fabric. To remove the wax you need to iron the material through several layers of the newspaper until it disappears completely. Good luck!